The Economics of Russian Import Substitution

The Economics of Russian Import Substitution

This policy brief discusses the economic mechanisms triggered by import substitution policies, associated losses and conditions that ensure positive economic effects. Numerical estimations of potential effects of Russian import substitution policies indicate a decline in GDP, decrease in output of unprotected sectors and consumers’ welfare...
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Effects of Trade Wars on Belarus

The trade wars following the 2014 events in Ukraine affected not only the directly involved participants, but also countries like Belarus that were affected through international trade linkages. According to my estimations based on a model outlined in Ossa (2014), these trade wars led to...
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Environmental Implications of Russia’s Accession to the WTO

Authors: David G. Tarr, NES and Natalia Turdyeva, CEFIR. We investigate the environmental impacts of Russia’s World Trade Organization (WTO) accession with a computable general equilibrium model incorporating imperfectly competitive firms, foreign direct investment and endogenous productivity. The WTO accession affects CO2 emissions through technique...
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Export Costs of Visa Restrictions

Authors: Natalia Kapelko and Natalya Volchkova, CEFIR. We study the role of visa restrictions in determining export flows between firms and countries, and find a significant negative impact of visa restrictions. Our results indicate that visa costs not only diminish the value of export, but...
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The Political Economy of the Latvian State Since 1991: Some Reflections on the Role of External Anchors

Author: Alf Vanags, BICEPS. This brief discusses the role of external anchors or goals such as WTO accession, NATO and EU accession in Latvia’s development strategy since 1991. On the one hand the external goals ‘depoliticised’ many potentially contentious areas of Latvian life. On the...
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